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Friday, May 27, 2011

Road Movement Graf

Convoy Operations
Convoy operations are planned according to FM 55-30 and FM 55-312. Joint Service regulations AR 55-29, AR 55-162, and AR 55-80 provide guidance on oversize/overweight vehicles and convoy moves. Civil highway authorities set limits on vehicle weight, length, width, and height to ensure the safety of the highway user and to preclude damage to the infrastructure. DOD policy states that no vehicle movement that exceeds legal limitations or regulations, or that subjects highway users to unusual hazards, will be made without permission from state, local, and/or toll authorities. Loads that exceed maximum allowable weight or dimensions will be transported by other modes or commercial transporters that conform with the limits of each state.
Special provisions apply during a national defense emergency and for certain other critical defense moves. During emergencies, permit requests may be made by the most expeditious means of communication available. Convoys and oversize/overweight moves must be coordinated with civil authorities to ensure that the selected routes are passable. These moves may be made without prior written permits from civil authorities. However, all requests should later be confirmed in writing. The POCs for coordinating movement are given in the MTMCTEA's Directory of Highway Permit Officials and MOBCON Coordinators.
CONVOY ORGANIZATION
5-1. The organization of a convoy consists of the following:
ORGANIZATIONAL ELEMENTS
5-2. A convoy commander can better control a convoy if it is broken into smaller, more manageable groups. Whenever possible, convoys are organized along organizational lines, such as platoon, company, and battalion. The three organizational elements of a convoy are a march column, a serial, and a march unit (see Figure 5-1). They are described as follows:
  • A march column is a group of two to five serials. It represents approximately a battalion-to-brigade size element. Each column has a column commander.
  • A serial is a subdivision of the march column. It consists of elements of a march column (convoy) moving from one area over the same route at the same time. All the elements move to the same area and are grouped under a serial commander. The serial commander is directly responsible to the convoy commander. A serial may be divided into two or more march units.
  • A march unit is a subdivision of the serial. It comes under the direct control of the march unit commander. It is the smallest organized subgroup of the convoy and usually will not exceed 20 vehicles.
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Figure 5-1. Convoy Organizational Elements
FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS
5-3. All convoys, regardless of size, are made up of three functional elements. These elements consist of a head, a main body, and a trail (see Figure 5-2). These elements are explained as follows:
  • The head is the first vehicle of each column, serial, or march unit. It carries the pacesetter, who sets the pace to maintain the prescribed schedules and rates of march. The pacesetter leads the convoy on the proper route. With the head performing these duties, the convoy commander is free to move up and down the convoy to enforce march discipline.
  • The main body follows right behind the head (pacesetter) and consists of the majority of vehicles in the convoy. It is the largest part of the convoy. It can be subdivided into serials and march units for easier control and management.
  • The trail is the last section of a march element. The trail consists of recovery, maintenance, and medical support. The trail officer is responsible for march discipline, breakdowns, straggling vehicles, and control at the scene of any accident involving his march unit until the arrival of civilian authorities. Figure 5-3, shows equipment that can potentially be included in the trail.
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Figure 5-2. Functional Elements of a Convoy
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Figure 5-3. Equipment Included in the Trail
TYPES OF FORMATIONS
5-4. The convoy must be organized to meet mission requirements and provide organizational control. The convoy commander decides how the convoy is formed for movement. The three basic types of formations are close column, open column, and infiltration. They are described as follows:
  • Close column provides the greatest degree of convoy control. It is characterized by vehicle intervals of 25 to 50 meters and speeds under 25 mph. Close column is normally used during limited visibility or on poorly marked or congested roads.
  • Open column is the preferred formation used during movement. It is characterized by vehicle intervals of 100 meters or more and speeds in excess of 25 mph. Open column is normally used on well marked open roads with good visibility.
  • Infiltration has no defined structure. Vehicle intervals and speeds will vary. This type of formation is normally not used during movement. Infiltration should only be used as a last resort in extremely congested areas or when the mission dictates.
A motor convoy is a group of vehicles organized for the purpose of control and orderly movement with or without escort protection. This chapter provides guidance for planning, organizing, and conducting convoys. A convoy is defined as follows:
·         Any group of six or more vehicles temporarily organized to operate as a column, with or without escort, proceeding together under a single commander.
·         Ten or more vehicles per hour dispatched to the same destination over the same route.
·         Any one vehicle, with or without escort, requiring the submission of a special haul permit.
NOTE: Dimension and weight limitations on vehicles vary greatly. Check local rules and restrictions before any military motor movement. However, for gross planning purposes, vehicles are normally considered over dimensional or overweight if they exceed the following:
Width
Height
Weight


Length
102 inches
162 inches (13 feet, 6 inches)
20,000 pounds for single axles
34,000 pounds for tandem axles
80,000 pounds for gross weight
48 to 60 feet for semitrailers
CONVOY PERSONNEL
5-5. There are certain personnel associated with military convoys. The following is a list of these convoy personnel.
CONVOY COMMANDER
5-6. Each convoy will be organized under the control of a convoy commander. Since the convoy commander must be free to supervise the movement of the convoy, there is no specified location for him in the convoy. The convoy commander should have contact with all subordinate commanders during the movement.
SERIAL/MARCH UNIT COMMANDERS
5-7. Serial/march unit commanders are positioned where they can best control their convoy element. Although commanders may want to place themselves at the head of their units, it is not recommended because this will restrict their ability to control all of their vehicles.
NOTE: Convoy, serial, and march unit commanders should avoid driving in the left hand lane because the limited speed of military vehicles can easily cause them to become a hazard to faster moving civilian traffic.
PACESETTER
5-8. The convoy commander will designate a pacesetter for the convoy. The pacesetter is in the first vehicle in the march element, normally the slowest, heaviest vehicle, excluding oversize/overweight vehicles. The pacesetter will perform the following:
  • Maintain the rate of march established by the convoy commander.
  • Meet all established times at SPs, critical points, CPs, and RPs.
  • Inform the convoy commander of any obstacles or hazards that may cause a deviation from the established route, such as construction, detours, or other obstacles.
TRAIL OFFICER
5-9. The trail officer is positioned at the rear of a march element. He checks and observes vehicles at the SP and keeps the convoy commander informed on the status of vehicles that fall out of the convoy. He oversees all maintenance, recovery, accident investigation, medical aid, and disposition of disabled equipment. He picks up all guides and markers left by preceding march elements.
GUIDES
5-10. Guides are used to ensure the convoy follows the prescribed route and become very important when operating in an area where road signs are poor or nonexistent. They assist convoys in locating supported units, preventing conflict with other convoys, and providing information on the route. Guides should be instructed that the convoy does not have priority over civilian traffic when not on a military reservation. Guides do not have authority to disregard traffic lights or other traffic devices on public roads.
CIVILIAN POLICE ESCORT
5-11. The convoy commander should request the assistance of civilian police, whenever possible, for all critical areas not on military reservations through which the convoy will pass. These areas include the following:
  • Major intersections.
  • Entrances to and exits from expressways and main routes.
  • Densely populated and industrial areas.
  • Entrances to and exits from rest halt areas.
The convoy commander should request that the installation provost marshal arrange for civilian police support in the immediate vicinity of the installation where the convoy originates.
VEHICLE PLACEMENT
5-12. The placement of the vehicles in an organizational element of a convoy is determined by many factors. One of the major factors is the danger of rear-end collisions. To reduce the possibility of injury to personnel, place vehicles transporting troops in the first march unit of the main body of the convoy. When empty trucks or trucks loaded with general cargo are available, use them as buffer vehicles between those transporting personnel and those loaded with hazardous cargo. Other factors to consider include the following:
  • Position those vehicles that require the longest unloading time near the front of the main body of the convoy. This will shorten the turnaround time.
  • If the convoy consists of vehicle-trailer combinations, have one prime mover without trailer (bobtail) per 10 vehicle-trailer combinations to support the recovery operations.
  • Place vehicles transporting hazardous cargo in the last serial of the convoy but not in the trail party.
CONVOY COMMUNICATIONS
5-13. Convoy commanders and NCOICs must effectively communicate with their subordinate leaders and vehicle drivers. Communications must be well planned and understood by all personnel involved in the movement. Radio is the principal means of communications within a motor convoy. It allows for the rapid transmission of orders and messages between widely separated elements in a convoy. Plans for radio use must be given in orders, in the unit SOP, and in the movement plan. Consideration needs to be given to the number of radios in the unit and distance over which elements of the convoy are trying to communicate.
5-14. Another means of communication is visual communications. These may involve hand and arm signals, flags, headlights, and protechnic signals and messages. In addition to hand and arm signals, messages may be written on a board and posted along the route or displayed by a guide in view of the oncoming vehicles. In the event of radio silence or for other reasons, the drivers or their assistants can use visual signals for convoy control. These signals should be specified in a SOP so that drivers are completely familiar with them. The signals must also be trained and rehearsed.
5-15. The next group of signals include audio signals which consists of the use of horns, whistles, and verbal messages. When possible, serial commanders should be equipped with loudspeakers to issue verbal instructions.
CONVOY IDENTIFICATION
5-16. Convoy identification must include the following:
CONVOY CONTROL NUMBER
5-17. Each convoy is identified by its CCN, which is assigned by the ITO where the convoy originates. The CCN identifies the convoy during its entire movement. It is placed on both sides of each vehicle in the convoy. The CCN is also placed on the top of the hood of the first and last vehicles of each march element.
5-18. For active duty component units, TC-ACCIS provides the capability for preparing the DD Form 1265 and DD Form 1266. The ITO provides the CCN through TC-ACCIS. The CCN has 10 digits. The first two digits identify the location (post or state) from which the convoy originates. The next four digits represent the Julian date. The next three digits are the sequence number, followed by a single digit, designating the type of movement. The type of movement designators are as follows:
Outsize/overweight vehicles
Explosives
Hazardous cargoes
All other convoys
- S
- E
- H
- C
An example is FE 5234 039 C, a convoy leaving from Fort Eustis, VA, on 22 August 1995. It is the 39th convoy of the day and is a regular convoy without any special requirements.
NOTE: CCN may be different than what is described above based on command directives, HN, or STANAGs.
VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION
5-19. The first vehicle (pacesetter) in each element of the convoy must have on its front a sign with 4-inch black letters on a yellow background reading CONVOY FOLLOWS. The last vehicle of each convoy element will have on the rear a sign reading CONVOY AHEAD. CONVOY AHEAD signs are not on maintenance or medical vehicles unless that vehicle's purpose is to represent the end of the convoy. Refer to AR 55-29 for the dimension of the convoy signs.
5-20. Mark each march element of a convoy with flags 12 inches in height and 18 inches in length. The lead vehicle is fitted with a blue flag and the rear vehicle with a green flag. Mount the flag on the left front of the lead and trail vehicle so that it will not interfere with the vision of the driver or with any functional component of the vehicle (see Figure 5-4).
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Figure 5-4. Flag Placement on a Vehicle
5-21. The vehicles of the column, serial, and the march unit commanders must carry on the left front bumper a white and black flag. Trail party vehicles will carry an international orange safety flag. Local police or MP escort vehicles will not display convoy identification flags. Convoy identification flags are available through local supply channels as follows:
·         Lead vehicle flag (NSN 8345-00-543-6912).
·         Last (rear) vehicle flag (NSN 8345-00-543-6913).
·         Commander's flag (NSN 8345-00-543-6911).
NOTE: A standard flagstaff attachment (NSN 8345-00-242-3650) can be used for attaching the flags to the vehicles.
A rotating amber warning light will be placed on cranes (wreckers), oversize or overweight vehicles, and the first and last vehicles in a convoy. The lights will be on at all times when the convoy is operating outside a military installation.
SAFETY EQUIPMENT AND WARNING DEVICES
5-22. While moving at night or during periods of reduced visibility, lead, trail, and oversize/overweight vehicles will operate four-way flashers. Convoy vehicles will also display reflective L-shaped symbols 12 inches long and 2 inches wide at the lower corners of the vehicle's body (refer to AR 55-29). See Figure 5-5, for specifications.
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Figure 5-5. Reflective L-Shaped Symbol
5-23. Headlights of all vehicles moving in convoy or halted on road shoulders must be on low beam at all times except where prohibited by local ordinances. While halted on shoulders, vehicles equipped with emergency flasher systems must also have these lights operating. The following safety equipment is needed in all vehicles:
·         An approved fire extinguisher.
·         An approved first aid kit.
·         One set (pair) of tire chains when snow or ice conditions may be encountered.
·         An approved highway warning kit.
Road guides must wear high visibility devices such as a reflective vest (NSN 8415-00-177-4974). Baton flashlights must also be provided when the convoy operates during darkness or when visibility is reduced to 500 feet or less.
FINAL ACTIONS BEFORE DEPARTURE
5-24. The convoy commander or his designee inspects all vehicles in the convoy staging area to ensure that they are in satisfactory condition. He ensures on-the-spot corrections are made as soon as possible. Vehicles should be checked for the following:
  • Properly completed dispatch (DD Form 1970).
  • PMCS completed and deficiencies and shortcomings are corrected (DA Form 2404).
  • Required basic issue items.
  • Check fuel levels.
  • Safety equipment (fire extinguishers, first aid kit, and so on.)
  • Properly secured secondary loads.
  • The correct CCN, flags, signs, lights, and placards.
  • Headlights on low beam.
After vehicles and drivers have been inspected and the convoy is organized and ready to move out, assemble the personnel for a final briefing. Distribute strip maps to all drivers. Use an enlarged strip map (a blackboard drawing or other drawing) to explain details of the route. Conclude the briefing with a question and answer period.
DRIVER PREPARATION
5-25. The convoy commander ensures the following:
·         Drivers and assistant drivers possess a valid OF 346 for the piece of equipment they are operating.
·         Only experienced drivers are selected to operate vehicles on public highways.
·         Drivers are prepared, are in the proper uniform, and have required equipment.
·         Drivers have 8 hours of rest within 12 hours before the convoy departs (refer to AR 55-29).
The convoy commander also ensures that drivers and assistant drivers are briefed thoroughly before the convoy departs. He issues strip maps and orders to drivers and briefs the following topics:
  • Convoy organization and vehicle assignments.
  • Departure and arrival times.
  • Compliance with traffic signals.
  • Route of march.
  • Maximum and minimum speeds.
  • Actions at halts.
  • Route and highway markers in accordance with the strip map.
  • Vehicle gaps or intervals (for urban areas, expressways, conventional routes, and entrance and exit routes).
NOTE: A simple method to use is the "4 second rule." It establishes an interval of 4 seconds between vehicles in the convoy. The interval can be maintained regardless of the speed of the convoy, and it allows for the space between vehicles to be adjusted as the rate of march changes.
·         Schedule rest stops and refuel points.
·         Vehicle recovery operations.
·         Obedience to civil authorities and MP.
·         Location and time of scheduled halts.
·         Action to take if separated from the convoy.
·         Actions in the event of breakdown or accident.
·         Refueling procedures.
·         Communications/signal procedures.
·         Light discipline.
·         Security en route and during halts.
·         Weather forecast and actions during inclement weather.
·         Chain of command and locations.
·         Safety during movement and during halts.
NOTE: The assistant driver will remain awake at all times and keep the driver alert. The use of an assistant driver DOES NOT double the amount of driving time for the convoy.
ROAD MOVEMENT PLANNING
5-26. All convoy movements must be planned out in advance. The following factors and formulas will assist in convoy calculations.
TIME-DISTANCE FACTORS
5-27. Time-distance factors are used to perform calculations for planning highway movements. Understanding time and distance factors is critical when planning a convoy. Figure 5-6 shows the relationship between distance factors and time factors.
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Figure 5-6. Distance and Time Factors
5-28. Distance factors are expressed in kilometers or miles. The following explains distance factors:
·         Length is the length of the roadway the convoy occupies, measured from the front bumper of the lead vehicle to the rear bumper of the trail vehicle.
·         Road space is the length of a convoy plus any additional space added to the length to avoid conflict with leading and following traffic.
·         Gap is the space between vehicles (vehicle interval) or between elements of a convoy (column gap). It is measured from the rear of one element to the front of the following element.
·         Road clearance distance is the distance that the head of a convoy must travel for the entire convoy to clear a given point along the route. It is the sum of the convoy's length and road distance.
5-29. Time is expressed in hours or minutes. The following describes time factors:
  • Pass time is the time required for a convoy or a subgroup to pass a given point on the route.
  • Time space is the time required for a convoy or one of its subgroups to pass any point along the route plus any additional time required for safety.
  • Time gap is the time between vehicles or elements as they pass a given point. It is measured from the trail vehicle of one element to the lead vehicle of the following element.
  • Time lead is the time between individual vehicles or elements of a convoy, measured from head to head, as they pass a given point.
  • Time distance is the time required for the head of a convoy or any single vehicle to move from one point to another at a given rate of march.
  • Road clearance time is the total time a convoy or an element needs to travel over and clear a section of road. Road clearance time equals the pass time plus time distance.
ROAD MOVEMENT CALCULATIONS
5-30. To complete a movement request, the moving unit must determine the arrival and clearance times at the SP, CPs, halts, and RP. Clearance times must be calculated for all march elements within the convoy. Use the following formula to compute the time distance of the convoy:
Time Distance = Distance/Rate
To calculate the clear times at each point along the route, planners must determine the pass time. Calculating pass time requires two calculations: vehicles per mile (density) and pass time. Use the following formula’s to compute density and pass time:
Density =
                1 mile (1,760 yards)               
vehicle gap (yd) + average vehicle length (yd)
Pass Time =
number of vehicles X 60 + time gap
density X rate
CONVOY MOVEMENT REQUESTS
5-31. Units needing to convoy must request and receive clearance before beginning movement. The request is submitted through command channels to the ITO or movement control element within whose area the convoy originates. Requests may be prepared manually or through TC-ACCIS.
5-32. Requests for convoy clearance are submitted on DD Form 1265 or on a theater movement bid. A special hauling permit (DD Form 1266) is used to request permission to move oversize/overweight vehicles on public roads. All sections of the forms must be completed. The convoy commander should identify specific CPs in addition to the required location and duration of each halt. The convoy commander may also request additional support and routing instructions.
5-33. Once the convoy clearance request has been reviewed and processed by the approving authority, the unit is issued a CCN. The movement of the convoy must be conducted as the convoy clearance directs. Deviations are not authorized without prior coordination with the approving authority.
5-34. The convoy commander must ensure that the routing specified on the approved convoy clearance is followed and that the estimated time of departure and estimated time of arrival are met at each of the CPs and rest halts.
PREPARATION OF THE GRAPHIC STRIP MAP
5-35. The strip map will show a picture of the route over which the convoy will travel. The following eight items must be shown on the strip map:
·         Start point. The SP is the location where the convoy must start and comes under the active control of the convoy commander. As the SP is passed, each element should be traveling at the rate of speed and vehicle interval stated in the OPORD. When selecting an SP, select a place that is easily recognized on the map and on the ground.
·         Release point. The RP is the place where convoy elements are released to their owning units. It must be clearly shown on the strip map. As with the SP, the convoy passes the RP without halting and at the rate and vehicle interval stated in the OPORD.
·         Halts. Scheduled halts provide rest, messing, refueling, maintenance, and schedule adjustment, while allowing other traffic to pass. Halt time is included in the road march. Generally, all elements of the convoy halt at the same time so that the time gaps between elements remain the same. Every effort should be made so that dining and refueling halts coincide.
·         Convoy routes.
·         Major cities and towns.
·         Critical points/checkpoints. CPs are designated along the route for control and maintenance of the schedule. Choose easily recognized features as CPs.
·         Distance between CPs.
·         North orientation.
The strip map will be detailed but not so cluttered with information that it is unreadable (see Figure 5-7). Listed are examples of what may be shown:
  • Route data, including route numbers, major intersections, and mileage between points.
  • Movement control data, including arrival and departure times at the SP, CPs, RP, state lines, and all halts.
  • Logistical support data, including the location of all logistical support facilities. This may also include the procedures for requesting/obtaining medical and maintenance support.
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Figure 5-7. Strip Map
CONVOY EXECUTION
5-36. Convoys should depart staging or marshaling areas in sufficient time to pass the SP at the prescribed time. Convoy commanders should use the close column formation when moving from the staging area to the SP of the main convoy route.
TRAFFIC
5-37. Main convoy routes are usually characterized by heavy, fast-moving traffic. Entering the route is a critical operation, but the risk can be reduced when civilian police assist by controlling traffic.
5-38. Ensure that all vehicles remain in the right lane after the convoy has entered the flow of traffic. Where the right lane is reserved for traffic turning off at the next exit, the convoy should use the next adjacent lane. Drivers must be alert and drive defensively.
5-39. To leave the route, either to enter a rest area or to take another route, move vehicles to the deceleration lane at the earliest opportunity and reduce to a safe speed to exit. Commanders should ensure that all vehicles remain with the convoy element.
SCHEDULED HALTS
5-40. Schedule halts so that the convoy will halt for 15 minutes at the end of the first hour of operation and 10 minutes every 2 hours thereafter. Minor adjustments to this schedule can be made when a suitable area is not available at these time periods. Schedule all meals and refueling halts at the same time. Take the following precautions when halting the convoy:
  • Avoid areas on curves or reverse sides of hills.
  • Leave enough room to allow the vehicles to park off the paved portion of the road and return to the road safely.
  • Maintain a minimum distance of 3 feet between parked vehicles.
  • Do not permit convoy personnel on the traffic side of vehicles except to perform prescribed maintenance.
  • Make sure drivers and assistant drivers perform prescribed maintenance and check the security of cargo.
  • Post guards at least 50 meters behind the last vehicle to warn traffic when departing a rest area.
  • Ensure that there is space for other vehicles. Convoy vehicles should not occupy more than 50 percent of the parking area at any time.
  • Maintain a sufficient time gap between serials to allow one to clear a rest area before the following serial arrives.
UNSCHEDULED HALTS
5-41. Move a disabled vehicle immediately from the traffic lane to a location where it will not be a hazard to other traffic. If a breakdown occurs, emplace a highway warning device either in the obstructed lane or on the shoulder of the road if the vehicle is on the shoulder. Do this before any attempt is made to repair the vehicle. DO NOT use military personnel to warn traffic by manual flagging except where warning devices do not give adequate warning.
5-42. In the event of an accident, make every effort to minimize its effects and keep the convoy moving. Do the following if an accident happens in the convoy:
·         Keep moving. Only the vehicle immediately behind the vehicle should stop and render assistance.
·         Give first aid. Give immediate attention to injuries.
·         Report any accident to civilian police and wait for assistance. Do not move the damaged vehicle until an accident investigation has been completed by civilian police.
·         Trail parties will assist civil authorities, investigate, and recover the vehicle as required.
·         Clear the traffic lane. The crew of the affected vehicle should make every effort to clear the traffic lane as soon as possible.
·         Complete an SF 91.
The first officer or NCO to arrive at the scene of the accident will take charge by supervising emergency aid, directing military traffic, warning civilian traffic, and directing the placement of warning devices until the trail officer arrives. The trail officer, aided by available medical and maintenance personnel, will supervise and direct care of the injured and disposition of the damaged vehicles. Further assistance needed should be requested from the agencies listed in the convoy OPORD.
MOVEMENT REPORTS
5-43. The convoy commander will normally provide a movement report to the next higher HQ. During deployment and selected exercises, special instructions included with the approved convoy clearance will direct the convoy commander to report to the appropriate HQ upon departure, at selected halt locations, and upon arrival. As a minimum, the report should contain the following:
·         Convoy clearance number and convoy commander's name.
·         Time of arrival at scheduled halts.
·         Time of arrival at state lines or country borders.
·         Complete details and circumstances of any accident or incident.

LESSON 1
PLANNING A BATTALION DEPLOYMENT/FTX

OVERVIEW
TASK DESCRIPTION:
This lesson requires that you learn, and demonstrate an understanding of what a movement plan is, the duties of key personnel, the various types of movement plans, movement orders/directives, categories of movement and cargo. You will learn what a well written plan contains, how to develop it, how to prepare road movement graphs, tables and overlays and strip maps. You will also learn how to determine resources and requirements needed to conduct a battalion deployment.
LEARNING OBJECTIVE:
ACTION:
Develop a tentative battalion movement plan and determine the resources and requirements needed to conduct a deployment.
CONDITION:
Given the information contained in Lesson 1.
STANDARDS:
You must correctly answer 70 percent or more of the questions concerning the lesson material contained in the subcourse examination.
REFERENCES:
The material contained in this lesson was derived from the following publications: ARTEP 7-8 MTP, FM 101-5, FM 101-10-1, FM 25-100, FM 25-101 and FM 25-4.

INTRODUCTION
The ability of the commander to move his unit is a very important part of his command responsibility. The ability to get from one place to another will be a vital factor in any future conflict.

PART A
MOVEMENT PLANS
1. General. A movement plan provides the commander with necessary information and a list of required actions for moving from one place to another. The plan must be comprehensive, detailed for quick implementation, require little, or no decision making, and contain a minimum amount of assumptions.
2. Key Personnel Responsibilities.
a. Unit Movement Officer (UMO).
(1) Prepares and maintains movement plans and SOPs.
(2) Periodically reviews plans and SOPs to ensure conformity with directives of higher headquarters, and to determine if they meet requirements generated by changes in personnel or equipment.
(3) Recommends changes to unit plans and SOPs when appropriate.
(4) Prepares or maintains documentation required for unit movements.
(5) Prepares or maintains unit load plans.
(6) Maintains liaison with higher headquarters and support activities on unit movements.
(7) During alerts, relieves the unit commander of as many of the preparatory duties as possible, especially those requiring the commander's absence from the unit area.
(8) Handles all arrangements for unit movement.
(9) Maintains COMPASS and updates as required.
b. Installation Transportation Officer (ITO).
(1) Assists the UMO with guidance and technical data.
(2) Provides technical assistance to units.
(3) Obtains routing approvals for the move to the airhead, railhead, or water terminals.
(4) Coordinates the procurement of blocking and bracing material (BBM).
(5) Assists in load team training.
(6) Inspects the commercial carriers equipment for damage and suitability.
(7) Procures DOD/commercial transportation assets, i.e., railcars, aircraft, etc.
(8) Coordinates with commercial carriers.
(9) Coordinates with other installations for support, rest stops, etc.
3. Types of Movement Plans.
a. Preparation for Overseas Movement (POM): POM is envisioned as an administrative overseas deployment by either air or surface transport mode. All unit equipment, supplies, and CTA items essential to accomplishing the unit mission will be included. All units require POM plans.
b. Prepositioning of Material Configured to Unit Sets (POMCUS). POMCUS is the prepositioning of equipment overseas. This type of move is used with REFORGER type units. Ideally, all equipment is already placed in the overseas area; but realistically, some equipment must be transported with the unit.
c. Reserve Component - This applies to the mobilization of ARNG and USAR units. This plan covers the movement from the unit's home station or equipment storage area to a mobilization station.
d. Tailored - This applies to tactical movements of units assigned specialized operations or contingency plans. Planning requirements will be established in the tasking directive issued by HQ FORSCOM or other appropriate headquarters.
4. Movement Orders/Directives.
a. Warning Order - An order issued through command channels as an advance notice that an organization is to be moved. It usually is issued, as time permits, approximately 250 days in advance of the readiness date.
b. Movement Directive - The basic document published by the Department of the Air Force, or jointly, which authorizes a command to take action to move a designated unit from one location to another.
c. Movement Order - Movement orders are published by the responsible headquarters upon receipt of the movement directive from the Department of the Army. They specify the exact organizational structure of the unit to be moved and also furnish other information essential to the unit commander in preparing his unit and moving it to its destination. The movement orders are the implementing documents forwarded to the unit commander authorizing him to move his unit.
5. Categories of Overseas Movement.
a. CATEGORY A - Movement from home station with all personnel and equipment which are authorized the unit as prescribe by Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE), Modified TOE (MTOE), or Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA), as applicable.
b. CATEGORY B - Move from home station with minimum essential equipment (MEE) in accordance with AR 220-10, appendix D. MEE is equipment needed to preserve the integrity of the unit during movement without regard to combat or service support mission.
c. CATEGORY C - Move with less than MEE. Guidance provided in movement directive.
6. Categories of Cargo. To properly prepare movement plans the UMO or commander must know the different types of cargo category. This information is vital if the unit is to be moved in an efficient manner. Once categorized, the cargo designated To Accompany Troops (TAT) will be marked with a circle or disk as described below.
a. Red Disk TAT: Equipment and supplies essential to the administration of the unit and maintenance of personnel upon arrival at destination, but not needed en route. This equipment must arrive at the destination no later than the unit. Examples are tents, bulk rations, POL products, ammo, protective clothing, etc.
b. Yellow Disk TAT: Those items which must be accessible at all times from origin to destination. Examples are CTA 50-900, weapons, other equipment/supplies required for health and welfare of personnel and unit administration during movement.
c. Category Z Equipment: Includes mission required equipment and all other supplies not categorized as Red or Yellow Disk TAT. Examples are vehicles, generators, tools, light sets, gas ranges, etc.
7. Uses of Cargo Categories.
During the preparation of unit movement plans all unit equipment and supplies will be divided into Red Disk TAT, Yellow Disk TAT, and Category Z equipment. DA Form 2940-R (Unit Loading Inventory and Checklist) (Worksheet), will be complied for each cargo category. This breakdown greatly assists in preparing vehicle loads for the motor march to the embarkation point. Additional prioritization within cargo categories may be required according to any given situation.
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Figure 1-1. DA Form 2940-R
8. Computerized Movement Planning and Status System (COMPASS).
COMPASS is an automated system that, if properly maintained and updated, will save the UMO many hours of tedious work. A new format is called the Automated Unit Equipment List (AUEL). The purpose of COMPASS is to assist commanders in fulfilling planning and execution responsibilities by providing:
a. Standard reporting procedures for all AC and RC units.
b. Viable planning and execution document.
c. Automated Unit Equipment List (AUEL). The AUEL that is provided by COMPASS saves the UMO many hours of researching TOEs, MTOEs, and TDAs to come up with an equipment list. With AUEL he just divides into cargo categories and fills out DA Form 2940-R.
d. Reduces manual preparation of documentation for move.
e. Blocking and bracing material requirements are given, thereby saving the UMO the task of calculating the BBM.
f. Provides an automated Unit Movement Data (UMD) master file. Most of the information needed to prepare load plans is included in the COMPASS report.
9. Contents of a Movement Plan.
a. Statement of the requirement and how to implement. For example, a POM move may be described as "an administrative category A deployment to be implemented by surface movement from station of origin to the port of embarkation. At the port of debarkation, movement will be by surface mode to final destination." The implementation statement will always include MTOE category (A, B, or C) TDA category, and mode of movement.
b. Identification of administrative, logistical, and coordination requirements. Examples of administrative requirements are wills, convoy clearances, pay, disposition of POVs, etc.. Examples of logistical requirements are property book transfer or transportation requests that exceed organic capabilities. An example of coordination is asking another unit to assist load teams.
c. Organization for movement and duties of personnel.
(1) Identify where each element is assigned for travel, who (by station, not by name) is in charge, and what each soldier is to do.
(2) Duties to be performed include loading, packaging, maintenance, rations, and area police.
d. Actual load plans for organic vehicles and blocking and bracing material (BBM) requirements.
e. Inventory of shipping containers with packing lists.
f. Requirements for commercial transportation equipment.
g. Actual load plans for organic vehicles and BBM.
h. COMPASS rail BBM listing.
10. Sequence for Developing Movement Plans.
a. Determine the type plan and requirements.
b. Determine movement requirements for:
(1) Passengers: For all types of plans, consider all MTOE personnel. Special movement plans depend on personnel identified for the operation.
(2) Cargo: POM plans will address movement of all MTOE required vehicles and equipment, on hand or not, and mission essential CTA items. POMCUS plans include all vehicles and items of equipment which are MTOE required and not prepositioned. Any items identified as TAT on the prepositioned equipment listing will also be considered for special plans cargo requirements, which will depend on the guidance of the tasking directive.
(a) To determine the cargo requirements, the essential equipment data must be developed/determined. Prepare a Unit Equipment List that lists all vehicles/trailers, equipment, and supplies identified to accompany the unit on its move. Items will be listed in the reduced configuration. An updated COMPASS report will provide you with most of the information. If not using COMPASS, record the LIN of each item, the actual shipping package divisions, weight and cube of, IAW TB 55-46-1, the equipment being moved. If the equipment will be transported in organic cargo vehicles a FORSCOM Form 285-R (figure 1-2) must be filled out for each vehicle.
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Figure 1-2. FORSCOM Form 285-R
(b) Designate all equipment and supplies into one of the three cargo categories: Red, Yellow, or Z. Pack these items separately.
(c) Prepare a DA Form 2940-R (Unit Loading Inventory and Checklist) (Worksheet). A separate DA Form 2940 is filled out for each cargo category, R, Y, or Z. This is the must important form.
(d) Prepare DA Form 2941-R Unit Vehicle Loading Plan (Worksheet). This depicts how all unit equipment, supplies, and personnel will be convoyed to the railhead, airhead, terminal, or new location. List vehicles by loading/packaging numbers you designated on DA Form 2940-R. Going from left to right match prime movers to trailers and enter them alternately (i.e., TRK, TRL, TRK, TRL, etc.). Load as many packages onto organic vehicles as possible ensuring rated capacity is not exceeded. Support vehicles must be programmed and requested to accommodate all equipment or supplies that cannot be handled by organic asserts. SPT will identify support vehicles and will be numbered consecutively.
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Figure 1-3. DA Form 2941-R
(e) Prepare DA Form 2942-R (Unit Train Loading Plan) (Worksheet). This is used to determine the requirements for railcars and list the load for each car by package number and weight. Plan loads to achieve a minimum of 24,000 pounds per car. Chapter 3, TM 55-601 will give you the dimensions of the cars.
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Figure 1-4. DA Form 2942-R
c. Develop load plans for all organic cargo vehicles.
d. Determine administrative, logistical, and coordinating requirements.
e. Test vehicle load plans and prepare actual load plans.
f. Record and validate UMD and send forward to higher headquarters.
g. Prepare movement plan and send to higher headquarters.
PART B
DETERMINING RESOURCES AND REQUIREMENTS FOR DEPLOYMENT INTRODUCTION
The following is a list of minimum items that need to be determined/coordinated for a Battalion Deployment. The list is not all inclusive and local regulations may mandate additional coordination with the host installation.
1. Movement Requirements.
a. General Movement Requirements.
(1) Movement of military motor vehicles may be authorized by the command or agency issuing Movement Orders, if the movement is relatively short distance, connected with maneuvers, and considered desirable for training.
(2) Tracked vehicles and other equipment which cannot be operated at usual highway speeds normally will not be moved on public highways under their own power but by rail, transporter truck, or water transport.
(3) In all cases movement of vehicles (2) above over public highways under their own power, permits must be obtained from appropriate highway authorities (each state movement will move through IAW [AR 55-162]).
(4) Destination installation commander must be notified in advance, of actual departure and actual arrival times.
b. Movement/Clearance Requirements for a Convoy.
(1) DA Policy is "Commercial lift will be used to maximum in CONUS."
(2) Non-roadable vehicles will not be road marched more than 75 miles.
(3) DD Form 1265 (Request for Convoy Clearance) will be prepared and coordinated for each element of the move. DD Form 1266 (Request for Special Hauling Permit) will be prepared as necessary and accompany convoy clearance request. Both are submitted to installation Unit Movement Coordinator (UMC) (G4/S4, ITO or DOL).
(4) A convoy consists of 6 or more tactical vehicles or one or more vehicles requiring a special hauling permit.
(5) Convoys moving on public highways will move administratively, obeying all local and state laws and ordinances.
(6) Requests for convoy clearance and special hauling permits will be submitted to SI/STARC for coordination of en route support, modification, approval, and assignment of ID number normally coordinated by installation unit movement coordinator (UMC).
c. Movement/Clearance Requirements for Rail.
(1) Normally the installation transportation officer (ITO) will coordinate movement/clearance requirement for rail. This coordination is done with Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC).
(2) Unit must:
·         Determine equipment to be moved by rail.
·         Determine and develop load plans that identify rail car requirements and loads. Unit submits rail car requirements to ITO who requests rail cars. Unit must provide fund cite with requests. ITO can give cost estimate to unit.
·         Unit must ID blocking and bracing requirements and request these items thru DOL UMC.
2. Movement Support.
a. Procedures for acquiring RON sites.
(1) Unit must send installation UMC a message requesting RON support. What support to be provided will be determined by the RON installation.
(2) Message must state total requirements. Key info required is:
·         Number of personnel officer/EM (male/female).
·         Billet/dinning requirements or BIVOUAC site.
·         Status of personnel (TDY or deployment for training).
·         Date/time of arrival of convoy, departure date/time.
·         Make up of convoy (number and type vehicles).
·         Fuel requirements by type: GAL's Aviation, Mogas, etc. Must have proper fund documentation for reimbursement - should be forwarded in advance. Installation will advise of proper documentation.
·         Security requirements (special, if any).
·         P.O.C.
·         Communications, radio, etc.
b. Unit must determine what maintenance/recovery support is available for the convoy. This is determined by the installation in accordance with AR 5-9, Intraservice Support Installation Area Coordination. The availability of medical/hospitalization support for the convoy must be determined. AR 5-9 assigns areas of responsibility to each installation by counties/state for logistical, engineering, PMO, safety, EOD, TASC, PA, weather, and health.
3. Training Areas. The unit must determine what ranges/training areas are available to conduct familiarization/qualification firing for its individual and crew served weapons. They must also determine if facilities are available for any special requirements such as platoon live fire exercises, demolition training, land navigation course, close air support etc.. In addition you should determine if any abnormal safety restrictions exist for the range facilities you require.
4. Training Enhancers. Training enhancers include such items as GSRs, tanks, A-10s, artillery, and targeting systems. You must determine if any of the assets are available, and if so what are the request and usage procedures.
5. Buildings/Cantonment Area. Buildings and cantonment area includes the following facilities:
  • Buildings for battalion/unit headquarters and arms/storage areas.
  • Buildings available for billeting and feeding soldiers.
  • Areas to serve as track/wheeled vehicle park and motor pool.
6. Exercise (Supply & Services). In addition to determining the availability/shortages of all classes of supply you must also coordinate with the installation for such services as laundry/bath facilities, latrine services, disposal services, and guard support.
7. Maintenance/Transportion Services. The availability of maintenance support for the tracks, wheeled vehicles, commo, small arms, and missiles must be determined, to include GS/DS maintenance support. Transportation includes coordinating for commercial vehicles as will as TMP support.
8. Personnel/Admin/Legal/Medical. The following services must be determined/coordinated:
  • Admin support.
  • Legal services.
  • Civilian KP support.
  • Post exchange services.
  • Availability and capability of hospital support.
  • Range support requirements for medics.
9. Communications. In addition to communications to support range training you must also determine what type of commo services are available to contact home station.
  • Physical Security. Local physical security requirements can be found in the host installations regulations.

PART C
PREPARING ROAD MOVEMENT GRAPHS, TABLES, OVERLAYS, AND STRIP MAPS
1. Road Movement Graph.
a. A road movement graph is a time-distance diagram used in planning, preparing, or checking road movement tables, and controlling marches. It shows the approximate location at a specified time of the head or tail of each serial, provided the road movement proceeds as scheduled. The vertical scale to the left, with point of origin at the bottom, serves as a distance scale in kilometers and should show the relative locations along the route of critical points where coordination of the movement is required.
b. A serial is represented graphically by drawing a line to represent the movement of the head of the serial and a line to represent the movement of the tail of the serial. The lines are parallel and are drawn with a slope that represents the rate of march (at 24 kilometers on the vertical to 1 hour on the horizontal scale).
c. To prepare a road movement graph, the following steps are applicable (figures 1-5 & 1-6).
(1) Designate the lower left corner of the graph sheet as the SP Time (1225 hrs), or earlier even hour before the march is to begin. Select a convenient scale (one vertical square=2 km, one horizontal square=10 min) and plot the hours available in sequence from left to right on the horizontal axis (1000 hrs through 2100 hrs).
(2) Determine the distance to be moved in kilometers (136km). Indicate the SP at the lower left corner of the graph sheet, and using an appropriate scale, plot the number of kilometers on the vertical scale from the SP (0km, Augusta) to the release point (RP) (136km, Fargo). Indicate the location of critical points (i.e., rest halts, check points, etc.) on the vertical scale.
(3) At the proper distance from the start point, draw a horizontal line indicating the location of the RP. Indicate the hour when the movement must be completed (2005 hrs) by a vertical line. Plot lines representing route restrictions, if any, at the proper distance and times on the graph.
(4) Determine the pass time (60 min) of foot and/or motor elements in the column. If not given, formulas for length-of-column (LGTHCOLMs and PSTs) foot and/or motor may be used.
(5) Starting at the SP at the specified hour (1225 hrs), plot the movement of the head of the leading element (left vertical line). If the motors (vehicles) move at a blackout rate of 24 km per hour, at 30 minutes they will have moved 12 kilometers; at 1 hour, 24 kilometers, etc.. Plot the trace of the lead vehicles to the RP.
(a) The last vehicle will cross the SP one "pass time" (60) after the first vehicle. Measure this time on the graph and plot the trace of the last vehicle of the element (right vertical line).
(b) The lines describing the head and tail of a serial are parallel (head of the column on the left and tail of the column of the right).
(c) Indicate the time subsequent serials (foot or motor) reach the SP, and plot the traces of the head and tail.
(d) Check to see that the plan complies with all restrictions and orders.
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Figure 1-5. Road Movement Graph

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Figure 1-6. March Formulas

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Figure 1-6. March Formulas (continued)
2. Road Movement Table (Annex to OPORD).
a. Road Movement Table. The road movement table is a method of providing movement schedules and other essential details pertaining to road movement to subordinate units. The road movement table provides:
(1) Proposed locations of elements at various times to the column commander.
(2) Arrival and clearance times at critical points along the route to the serial and march unit commanders.
b. Distribution. Road movement tables will frequently require a wider distribution than a normal operation order so that copies can be issued to movement control personnel, traffic posts, etc.
c. Security Classification. Security classification will be based on content of the road movement table and need not necessarily be the same as that of the operation order.
d. Preparation of Road Movement Table. Road movement tables consists of two parts.
(1) The first part includes "data" paragraphs containing general information common to two or more columns (or elements of a column). Data is listed as follows:
·         Average speed.
·         Traffic density (The average number of vehicles that occupy 1 mile or 1 kilometer of road space).
·         Halts.
·         Routes (i.e., between start points and release points). The routes and points are described by grid references, code words, etc., and, if necessary, are numbered or lettered for ease of reference in the road movement table.
·         Critical Points. A critical point is defined as a selected point along a route used for reference in giving instructions. It includes start points, release points, and other points along a route, such as bridges or intersections where interference with movement may occur or where timing is critical.
·         Start points
·         Release points
·         Other critical points
·         Route classification (if applicable).
·         Route restrictions (if applicable).
·         Main routes to start points (if applicable).
·         Main routes from release points (if applicable).
(2) The second part of the movement table is a listing of the columns (or elements of column), together with all other necessary information arranged in tabular form. The following information applies to the tabular form:
·         Since the form may be issued to personnel concerned with control of traffic, the security aspect must be remembered. It may not be desirable to include dates or locations.
·         If the tabular form is issued by itself and not as an annex to a more detailed order, the form must have the heading and be signed or authenticated in the normal way as for an annex issued separately.
·         For simplicity, use only the minimum number of column headings. Information which is common to two or more march units should be included under the "data" paragraph. If the annex has the same distribution as the operation order, it will not be necessary to include the headings and endings as shown in figure 1-7.
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Figure 1-7. Road Movement Table
e. Example Annex. Figure 1-8 is an example of a completed annex (road movement table) to a battalion OPORD. Note the following points:
(1) In paragraph 4 of the general data section, points are designated by names and grid references. Routes are labeled with code words.
(2) In blocks (f) and (g) of the tabular form section, point names are given, but no grid references. In block (h), the code word for the route which is given in the general data section is used.
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Figure 1-8. (Annex) Road Movement Table
3. Route Overlay/Strip Map (Annex to Unit March Order).
a. Route Overlay. The route overlay is a diagram that shows the present location of units, the SP, the route of march, control points, distances, RP, and the location of units in the new area.
b. Plotting of Route.
(1) Plot the present location(s) of unit(s). Use grid references and standard topographic or military symbol.
(2) Plot the locations of the SP and RP; label by name.
(3) Trace the route of march from SP to RP. Label each route by name or number (figure-1-9). Plot the proposed location of unit(s).
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Figure 1-9. Route of March
(a) Plot designated critical points on the route of march between SP and RP: trace all roads that intercept the route at critical points, control points, phase lines, and/or halts. Label (with a code name or number) any major highways that cross the route of march. Label critical points by designated names (figure 1-9 Cont).
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Figure 1-9. Route of March (Continued)
(b) Starting at the SP, measure and write in the distance in kilometers between each critical point up to the RP (figure 1-9, continued).
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Figure 1-9. Route of March (Continued)
c. Overlay Heading. Figure 1-10 shows an example of a completed route overlay (annex to OPORD). The security classification of the route overlay will be based on content and needs not necessarily be the same as that of the road movement operation order. The route overlay will have security classification markings centered on the top and bottom of the overlay. For training purposes where no classification is valid, the word "classification" will be entered to reflect the requirement for security classification.
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Figure 1-10. Annex (Route Overlay)
d. Strip Maps. Strip maps are similar to route overlays. The major difference is that the strip map is prepared by brigade or higher units as an annex to the unit march order. The strip map depicts various routes used by subordinate units, whereas the route depicts a single route. A secondary difference is that the strip map may be prepared either as an overlay or as a schematic of the map itself. While the amount of detail included on a strip map will vary with the commander's guidance, the terrain, and situation; a route strip map is normally more detailed than the route overlay show. A strip map will include as a minimum the current locations of units, routes of march, critical points, landmarks, and route distances. Using units should reproduce strip maps in quantity and supply them to key personnel, particularly to vehicle commanders and route markers. (figure 1-11)
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Figure 1-11. Strip Map

APPENDIX J

ROAD MOVEMENT PLANNING

Units that move convoys on MSRs, ASRs, or other controlled routes must understand how these routes are controlled and how to use them. Convoy operations require two types of control--area and organizational. This appendix focuses on area control. Both organizational and area control are discussed in detail in Chapter 5 of this manual.

J-1. AREA CONTROL. The commander who controls the area/terrain through which convoys move exercises area control. This type of control is normally exercised through movement control channels and is known as highway regulation.
a. Highway Regulation. Highway regulation involves planning, routing, scheduling, and deconflicting the use of routes to facilitate movement control. It seeks to provide order, prevent congestion, and enforce movement priorities. The goal of highway regulation is to sustain movements according to the commander's priorities and make the most effective and efficient use of road networks.
Responsibility for highway regulation rests with commanders having area jurisdiction. The highway regulation mission is performed by--
  • The TMCA and transportation battalions (MC) in the COMMZ.
  • The transportation battalion (MC) in the corps rear area.
  • The DTO in the division rear area.
  • The brigade S4 in the brigade rear area.
MC detachments may perform highway regulation when assigned a geographical area of responsibility within the COMMZ or corps rear area. The TMCA, movement control battalions, and DTO monitor highway regulation in subordinate command areas. Based upon the tactical situation, they may also regulate some of these routes.
b. Clearance Requests. A request to move on a controlled route is known as a movement bid. A movement bid is a form or message that details the itinerary of the move, the number and types of vehicles, and movement planning information. The authority to move is passed to the moving unit as a movement credit. A movement credit is an alphanumeric identifier.
Units needing to move on controlled routes that require a movement credit must request and receive clearance before beginning movement. Units use the traffic circulation plan and the highway regulation plan to obtain information on the road networks and determine if a movement bid is required. The request is submitted through logistics channels to the DTO or corps/EAC MC detachment within whose area the movement originates. Based on procedures established in SOPs, the request may be transmitted in hard copy, electronically, or verbally. Figure J-1, shows a sample movement bid.

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Figure J-1. Sample movement bid
The DTO, MC detachment, or transportation battalion (MC) reviews and considers movement bids based on command priorities for the type of movement and the unit requiring movement. They either schedule the movement as requested or, if a credit cannot be granted, notify the unit and schedule the move at a different time or on a different route. Movement credits are returned to the requesting unit through the same channels used for the request.
J-2. PLANNING FACTORS. Planning factors are basic to the process of planning and organizing convoys. This section provides the formulas and information necessary to plan highway movements and develop movement tables.
a. Movement Measurement. Movements are measured by calculating how long it takes to move a convoy over a route. These calculations involve time and distance factors.
Movement planners should use rate of march in performing movement calculations. The rate of march is the average number of kilometers expected to be traveled in any specific time period. Because the rate of march is an average, it compensates for short periodic halts and short delays caused by congestion. It does not include long halts, such as those for consuming meals or for overnight stops. March rate is expressed in kilometers or miles in the hour.
b. Time-Distance Factors. Time and distance factors are used to perform a wide range of calculations for planning highway movements and to develop movement bids or movement tables.
(1) Distance factors. Distance factors are expressed in kilometers or meters. The terms used to describe distance factors are as follows:
·         Road distance--the distance from point to point on a route, normally expressed in kilometers.
·         Gap--the space between vehicles, march units, serials, and columns. It is measured from the trail vehicle of one element to the lead vehicle of the following element. The gap between vehicles is normally expressed in meters. The gap between march elements is normally expressed in kilometers.
·         Road space--the length of roadway that a convoy occupies. It is measured from the front bumper of the lead vehicle to the rear bumper of the trail vehicle and includes all gaps inside the column. Road space is normally expressed in kilometers.
(2) Time factors. Time is expressed as a quantity of hours or minutes. The following are terms used to describe time factors:
      • Time distance--the amount of time required to move from one point to another at a given rate of march. It is the time required for the head of a column or any single vehicle of a column to move from one point to another at a given rate of march.
      • Time gap--the amount of time measured between vehicles, march units, serials, or columns as they pass a given point. It is measured from the trail vehicle of one element to the lead vehicle of the following element.
      • Pass time--the amount of time required for a convoy or its elements to pass a given point on a route.
c. Arrive and Clear Time Calculations. To complete a movement bid, the moving unit must calculate the arrive and clear time at SPs, en route CPs, and RPs. Arrive and clear times are not the same as time factors. Time factors measure a quantity of time or distance. Arrive and clear times are actual times as displayed on a clock.
The arrive time is the time the first vehicle in the column will arrive at an SP, CP, or RP. The arrive time is derived from the time distance. The clear time is the time the last vehicle in the column will clear that SP, CP, or RP. The clear time is derived from the pass time. The planner must determine the arrive and clear time for the entire column, consisting of the serials and march units within that column.
Calculate arrive times as follows: The arrive time at the SP is the same as the SP time. To calculate the arrive time at the first CP, take the distance from the SP to the first CP, divide by the planned rate of march, and multiply by 60 (minutes). Add this amount of time distance to the arrive time at the SP to determine the arrive time at the first CP.


EXAMPLE:
Distance from SP to first CP: 10 km



March rate: 50 KMIH


Solution: 10 ¸ 50 = .20 hours x 60 = 12 minutes


If the arrive time at the SP is 0800, then the arrive time at the first CP will be 0812.

To calculate the arrive time at the second CP, take the distance from the first CP to the second CP, divide by the planned rate of march, and multiply by 60 (minutes). Add this amount of time distance to the arrive time at the first CP to determine the arrive time at the second CP.



EXAMPLE:
Distance from first to second CP: 15km



March rate: 50 KMIH


Solution: 15 ¸ 50 = .30 hours x 60 = 18 minutes

If the arrive time at the first CP is 0812, then the arrive time at the second CP will be 0830.

Continue this method to calculate the arrive time at succeeding CPs to the RP.
To calculate the clear times at each CP, planners must determine the pass time. Calculating pass time requires four calculations: density, time gaps, road space, and pass time.

Density =

        1,000 (meters)
______________________________
vehicle gap + avg length of vehicle
NOTE: Vehicle gap is expressed in meters, representing the gap between vehicles. Average length of vehicle is expressed in meters, representing the average length of the most common vehicle in the column.


EXAMPLE:
If the vehicle gap is 100 meters and the average vehicle length is 18 meters, then--


Density =
__1,000_
__1,000 =
8.5 vehicles per km


100 + 18
=118



Time gaps
= [(number of march units - 1)
x march unit time gap]
+ [(number of serials - 1)
x (serial time gap - march unit time gap)]






EXAMPLE:
If a column has two serials with two march units in each, the time gap between march units is 5 minutes and the time gap between serials is 10 minutes, then--





Time gaps =
[(4 - 1) x 5] + [(2 - 1) x 5] =



[3 x 5] + [1 x 5] = 15 + 5 = 20 minutes





Road space
number of vehicles +
time gaps x rate


= density
60 (minutes)













NOTE: Time gaps in the road space calculation are the total time gaps calculated for the column.

EXAMPLE:
number of vehicles
density
rate
time gaps
= 87
= 8.5 per km
= 50 KMIH
= 20


Road space =
87
+ 20 x 50=
10.2 + 16.7 = 26.9 km


8.5
60

NOTE:
In this example, the column will occupy 26.9 km of road space.

Pass time = road space x 60

Rate

EXAMPLE:
Continuation from above

Pass time =
26.9 x 60 = 1,614 =
32.2 or 33 minutes


50
50

NOTE:
Always round up pass time regardless of the decimal value.
In this example, the clear time at the SP is 33 minutes after the first vehicle crosses the SP. If the arrive time at the SP is 0800, the clear time at the SP will be 0833. If the arrive time at the first CP is 0812, the clear time at the first CP will be 0845. Use this same method to calculate the arrive and clear times at succeeding CPs to the RP. This movement can be depicted as follows:

CP

ARRIVE TIME

CLEAR TIME

1

0800

0833

2

0812

0845

3

0830

0903
The pass time will stay the same throughout the route as long as the march rate and density do not change. If the march rate or density changes, then recalculate the pass time to determine the new clear time.
d. Rest Halts. While the march rate compensates for short halts, it does not include scheduled rest halts. Scheduled rest halts must be planned for during the movement planning process. Rest halts can either be scheduled at a CP or between CPs.
Planners should understand that scheduled rest halts require time to get vehicles off the road and staged, time to rest, and time to get vehicles back on the road. If 10 minutes is to be allowed for the rest halt, then 15 minutes should be scheduled. The extra time is needed to get vehicles on and off the road.
If a rest halt is scheduled at a CP, the arrive time at the CP does not change. The only thing that will change is the clear time at that CP and the arrive and clear time at succeeding CPs. The clear time must be adjusted by the scheduled halt time.
If a rest halt is scheduled between CPs, then the arrive and clear times at the next CP must be adjusted by the scheduled halt time.
Continuing with the previous example, if a 15-minute rest halt is planned between CP 2 and CP 3, the following adjustments to CP 3 are needed:

CP

ARRIVE TIME

CLEAR TIME

1

0800

0833

2

0812

0845

3

0845

0918
Note the 15-minute delay in arriving and clearing CP 3. If the rest halt was planned at CP 2, the following adjustment to the clear time at CP 2 and both the arrive and clear times at CP 3 are necessary:

CP

ARRIVE TIME

CLEAR TIME

1

0800

0833

2

0812

0900

3

0845

0918

Note the 15 minute delay in clearing CP 2, arriving at CP 3, and clearing CP 3.
e. Movement Tables. The procedures just described are used to calculate the arrive and clear times for an entire unit movement. That information is of no use to subordinate serial and march unit commanders. They will need to know the specific arrival and clear times for their serials and march units. Therefore, the movement planner must develop movement tables for these subordinate elements of the column.
Continuing with the example, you are assigned to the 150th Medium Truck Company, equipped with M915 tractors and M872 semitrailers. The company is augmented with an additional medium platoon. The unit will move from its present location to a new area and you must plan the move. You have read both the highway regulation plan and the traffic circulation plan and selected a route. The route requires that you submit a movement bid. The route you select is MSR DART. You will SP at CP 4 and RP at CP 13. You intend to SP at 0800. The following represents your route and the distances involved.
(SP) CP 4 to CP 8 = 10 km
CP 8 to CP 5 = 15 km
CP 5 to CP 1 = 10 km
CP 1 to CP 13 (RP) = 5 km
You calculate your time distance as follows:
Time Distance:
SP to CP 8 = 10/50 x 60 = 12 minutes
CP 8 to CP 5 = 15/50 x 60 = 18 minutes
CP 5 to CP 1 = 10/50 x 60 = 12 minutes
CP 1 to RP = 5/50 x 60 = 6 minutes
Your augmented company has 87 vehicles, which you divide into two serials with two march units in each serial. (You could have chosen to have all four march units in one serial.)
The first march unit has 22 vehicles with vehicles having an 18 meter average length. Calculate pass time for this march unit as follows:

Density
= 1000/100 + 18 = 1000/118 = 8.5 vehicles per kilometer

Time Gaps
= 0 (because you are calculating for only one march unit)

Road Space = 22_ +
0 x 50 = 2.6 kilometers


8.5
60


Pass Time
= 2.6 x 60 = 3.1 minutes = 4 minutes



 50

REMINDER: Round up pass time regardless of the decimal value.
You then develop a movement table for the company movement. Table J-1 shows the completed movement table showing the arrive and clear times for each march unit in the company.

150 Trans Co







March Unit 1
Arrive

Clear


CP 4 0800

0804



CP 8 0812

0816



CP 5 0830

0834



CP 1 0842

0846
NOTE 5-MINUTE TIME GAP


CP 13 0848

0852
BETWEEN MARCH UNITS







March Unit 2






CP 4 0809

0813



CP 8 0821

0825



CP 5 0839

0843



CP 1 0851

0855
NOTE 10-MINUTE TIME GAP


CP 13 0857

0901
BETWEEN SERIALS







March Unit 3






CP 4 0823

0827



CP 8 0835

0839



CP 5 0853

0857



CP 1 0905

0909
NOTE 5-MINUTE TIME GAP


CP 13 0911

0915
BETWEEN MARCH UNITS







March Unit 4






CP 4 0832

0836



CP 8 0844

0848



CP 5 0902

0906



CP 1 0914

0918



CP 13 0920

0924








Table J-1. Completed movement table
Note how the time distance is used to determine the arrive times. Also, that the pass time is added to each arrive time to obtain the clear time. If you compare the arrive and clear times of this movement table with the arrive and clear times calculated for the entire convoy, you will notice a slight deviation in the clear time at the RP. This is due to the rounding up of each march unit's pass time.
f. Diverting and Rerouting. Convoy commanders should realize that not all scheduled convoys will move according to scheduling. Traffic disruptions may be caused by enemy action that destroys bridges, damages MSRs, or contaminates MSRs. They may also be caused by refugees clogging an MSR, breakdowns, weather, or degradation of road surfaces. Highway regulation authorities may issue instructions to units to hold movements that have not begun or to issue new routing instructions, hold movements at a staging area or CP if they have already begun, or reroute movements at a CP. Units must comply with these instructions as issued.
J-3. COMPLETING A MOVEMENT BID. Movement bids must contain all information pertaining to the unit movement. The following guidance will assist you in completing a movement bid such as the one shown in Figure J-1.
1. TO: The appropriate movement manager responsible for highway regulation in your area. This organization may be the DTO, movement control battalion, TMCA, or MC detachment.
THRU: The higher headquarters or MC detachment servicing your area.
FROM: The unit submitting the movement bid.
2. MOVING UNIT: Name of the moving unit.
3. CONVOY CDR: Convoy commander's name.
4. START POINT/RELEASE POINT: The SP should be located at a point along the MSR that will allow a march unit to be at the proper interval and rate. The RP should be at a point along the MSR that will allow the march unit to clear the RP without bunching up or slowing from planned rate of march. Include a six-digit grid coordinate and the nearest town or other quickly identifiable location.
5. TYPE OF MOVEMENT: Identify the kind of movement; for example, unit move or resupply convoy.
6. MOVEMENT DATE/SP TIME: Date and time the convoy will arrive at the SP.
7. MOVEMENT CREDIT: This space is reserved for the movement control unit that will issue the movement credit. When you receive permission to move, this will be returned and a movement credit number will be assigned. This number will be written on each vehicle in the convoy.
8. CONVOY ORGANIZATION: Identify the number of serials and march units that you will need to control your convoy. You also establish the time gaps between serials and march units as well as the vehicle gap.
9. RATE OF MARCH: Enter the rate of march you used to plan the movement.
10. CHECKPOINTS: List the CPs you will use along your route. Ensure the CPs are known to the movement agency. These may be established as part of the traffic circulation plan and should be used by all units moving through the area of operations.
11. DISTANCE BETWEEN POINTS: The measured distance stated in kilometers.
12. ARRIVE AND CLEAR TIMES: Identify the arrive time and clear time at each checkpoint. Use the times that you calculated using the planning formulas as explained earlier in this appendix.
13. ROUTE DESCRIPTION: Use the MSR names identified in the highway regulation plan or the traffic circulation plan. When MSRs are not previously identified, use the local highway or road designation.
14. CRITICAL POINTS/HALTS: Identify planned halts for refueling or driver rest. These locations may be at a checkpoint or between checkpoints. Also identify any critical points that you want to bring to the attention of the movement planner.
15. NUMBER OF TRACKS: Identify the total number of tracked vehicles that will travel in the convoy.
16. NUMBER OF WHEELS: Identify the total number of wheeled vehicles that will travel in the convoy.
17. HEAVIEST VEH/WT/MLC: Identify by model the heaviest vehicle class that will be in the convoy. Include the vehicle weight and MLC. Vehicle weight may be found in TB 55-46-1. The MLC should be affixed to the right front of the vehicle. FM 5-36, Appendix C, lists common vehicles and their MLC.
18. VEHICLE CHARACTERISTICS AND INFORMATION: List the total number of vehicles of each model type that will travel in the convoy. Vehicle data may be found in TB 55-46-1. Include peculiar load information that will assist movement managers in routing the convoy. All hazardous material must be identified.
19. REQUESTER'S NAME: Identify a point of contact with telephone number in case there are questions and changes to be coordinated. This point of contact should be familiar with the convoy organization and the data that was used in filling out the form.
20. SECTION III: This section is reserved for the agency that processes your movement bid. The agency uses this space for movement bid accountability and internal control.

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